Saturday, February 16, 2008

The Rader System - Part Two



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LAYOFFS

We suggest that you follow the above program for a period of 3 months. Try not to miss a single workout unless are just too exhausted from your days work. However, a good workout will usually cause you to feel much better. When you are too tired you can take that particular workout a little easier. After 3 months on the above program take a layoff of 2 weeks in which you do no exercise, then start again on the same program. After each layoff you may want to change the schedule of repetitions as suggested elsewhere in the course.

On of our biggest problems is to keep a pupil from adding exercises to his program. To do so may defeat you and cause you to stop gaining. Keep the program exactly as we have given it to you here.



OTHER SPECIAL PROGRAMS

SPECIALIZATION

The following specialization programs and exercises are given here for those who find that some body part may be below per as thy near the desired bodyweight and general development from the course just given. Some men, and in fact most men, will find that some parts of the body develop easier and faster than others and it will require specialized work for these parts. You should not add these exercises until you are an advanced man and are somewhere near the desired bodyweight and general development.

When adding these exercises and specializing on them you should cut down slightly on the work you do on the regular course. It is suggested that you should cut down most exercises to one set each when specializing on some body part so you can devote more energy and attention to that particular area. To maintain a full program of sets on the regular course and also add these specialization exercises will, in most cases, result in overwork and going stale and probably an actual loss instead of a gain.

Though we have recommended 3 to 4 sets in most exercises, there are occasions when 5 to 6 sets are justified and perhaps needed. The pupil should judge for himself how many he can thrive on without going stale.

NECK EXERCISES

Every bodybuilder should have a good neck and many of the exercises already given work the neck very strongly but some men will feel the need of additional specialization. The wrestlers bridge exercise shown is one of the best. At first you won’t need weight in the hands. Just lie on your back with head on a pillow, and with shoulders flat on the floor. Then, by the strength of the neck muscles, raise up on the crown of the head and as far over toward the forehead as you can. Then lower back down until the shoulders touch ground. Repeat this for 10 to 12 repetitions. As you become more accomplished, you will find it helpful to roll sideways a little in a rotating movement as you come up. This will give you a wider range of movement. You can add resistance by holding a barbell. By rolling up on the forehead while face down you can affect the front of the neck. At first you will probably have to support yourself on the knees, maybe even helping a little with the hands, but as you get stronger you should let the knees extend out farther, throwing more strain on the neck until finally you can come up on the toes. It is doubtful if you will ever need extra weight, but if you do you can hold plates in your hands behind the back. Again, rolling the head around in a circle will exercise the sides of the neck as well as the front. You can do three sets of each neck exercise.

CAUTION – If you have not been doing regular neck exercises you should take it very easy at first, otherwise you can get some extremely sore neck muscles and even a very sore throat from overdoing it when starting out.

CALF SPECIALIZATION

Since the calves are perhaps the hardest part of the body for most bodybuilders to develop properly, and since they usually lag behind the rest of the body we will give them our attention here.

The muscles of the calves are very tough and dense and possess great endurance. This tissue is difficult to break down and requires extreme measures.

We will not discuss the anatomy of the different muscles not will we give you a large number of exercises to perform, as this would only confuse you. We give you the best exercises for this purpose and allow you to choose two or three for your special work.

The most popular calf exercise is the raise on toes, and properly performed it is probably the most effective of all. We recommend that you use this exercise. We ask that you hold a light barbell in the hands or on the shoulders, (some of you won’t need any weight at all for a while) and standing on a 3 or 4 inch block with the toes and ball of foot and with the back against a post or wall of other such solid support such as a door frame etc., raise up and down of the toes with back sliding against the support.

You should do a set with the toes pointed out, another with the toes pointed ahead and another with toes pointed in. This latter style will be a hard one to assume. We have found that best results will be had from doing 20 to 30 repetitions for most fellows. You should rest a few minutes between sets and lightly massage and stroke the muscles to aid the circulation. When the ache leaves the muscles you are ready for another set. Gradually work up to 3 to 6 sets in each position. This many sets will run into a lot of hard work and may not be necessary in all cases. However, if your calves are very stubborn you will have to work them this hard.

The proper number of reps will vary with different men. Use the number we have given to determine for yourself if it is right. It is important that you lean against a post of support to prevent your cheating by swinging the body. As you raise on the toes you will reach what seems to be your limit but make an extra effort to raise still higher. You will find this extra effort is the most effective part of the exercise. Allow the calf muscles complete extension by using a block of ample height. This height will be determined by the length of your foot. Don’t use so much weight that you can’t make the movements complete. At the same time use enough for plenty of resistance. After a workout on this exercise your calf muscles will ache so much it will almost make you sick, but this won’t harm you, as tough calf muscles require such extreme measures if they are to be forced to grow. Don’t allow anyone to convince you that this is a poor calf exercise. It is the most direct, natural and effective calf exercise known WHEN PROPERLY APPLIED.

For the front of the lower leg you just reverse the above procedure by placing the heel of the foot on the block and raise up and down on the heel. This will be a little hard until you get the muscles accustomed to acting over the full range of their movement. We seldom use these muscles over a very great range so they must be retrained. Raise the toes high toward you and make a secondary effort to raise it still higher. Work up to about 4 sets of 20 repetitions in this exercise, which should be enough for most cases. Use the sliding post in this again so that you won’t cheat.

Although there are other good calf exercises we feel that these are the most direct and effective so we are not giving any others. Most fellows will find the three workouts per week will give the desired results but some may find that they can thrive on as many as 5 calf workouts per week. Allow at least 3 months for satisfactory results on this program.

It will sometimes help if you lay off calf exercises one week after a month of heavy exercise. This will allow the calf muscles to soften up a little and they will respond better then from added exercise. It is also wise to remain off the feet as much as possible during calf specialization.

ARM SPECIALIZATION

The arms are probably the part of the body on which most fellows spend most of their energy and time developing. They are, in most cases, easier to develop than the calves, and respond amazingly to specialized work. A few years ago a 16 inch arm on a 6 foot man was considered unusual, but now with our advances in specialized body culture it is, considered rather small because most men are working for 17 and 18 inch arms.

The triceps and biceps muscles make up the muscular bulk of the arm. The two arm curl is a very fine exercise for the biceps but it has been found that more concentrated work can be given this muscle if a dumbbell is used and one arm at a time exercised. One of the most effective exercises is the seated one arm curl with the elbow held against the knee or thigh so that it cannot swing and allow you to cheat. You won’t need much weight for this and you will find that you can obtain a complete contraction and can give the muscle a very heavy workout.

An excellent curling method with the barbell is performed by backing up to a post and leaning against it at a slight angle and performing your curls from this position. This also will prevent swinging and cheating, thereby throwing all the strain on the biceps.

Another fine curling method is to load up your barbell to a weight in excess of what you can curl correctly and then bring it up in a cheating curl by swinging. This places an added strain on the biceps, giving them a very heavy workout when performed correctly.

One of the best triceps exercises is the supine press on a bench with a very narrow grip on the barbell. Allow the elbows to point out quite a lot and this causes the arms to double up a great deal and thus places the major portion of the strain on the triceps. Press the barbell to arms length and pause while taking two or three deep breaths, then lower the weight while holding the breath. When weight touches chest press back to arms length at once. Concentrate of the triceps. Several sets of this will make them ache. We find that an incline bench is still better for this exercise.

Another fine triceps exercise (one of the very best and most direct) is the bent arm pullover, or as it more properly should be called, the triceps curl, tho it is not a real curl, but just the reverse o an arm extension. Our readers are probably all familiar with it. Be sure to keep the elbows pointing up so as to get all the bend possible at the elbow. Then keep the elbows pointing upward while straightening the arms. It is best to perform this exercise on a bench, and still better if it is an incline bench. You may use either a dumbbell or barbell for this exercise. Try to keep the hands fairly close together.

If you have an overhead pulley weight you will find it can be used for one of the best triceps exercises. Place a bar through the handle and take a position as you would in a regular biceps curl with an over grip and with the bar at the shoulders, slowly bring the bar down to the thighs as you straighten the arms. This will give the triceps a terrific workout. If you wish you may do this with one hand at a time and in this case you will swing the hand farther back for greater triceps contraction.

We suggest that you have three different programs for arm work. Use each of them for three to four weeks.

First use the one arm curl for 10 reps and work up to 5 or 6 sets. Then for the triceps use the close grip supine press on bench for 12 reps and 5 to 6 sets. (Of course you will work up to this many sets gradually).

For the second three or four weeks use the two arm curl with barbell while leaning back against a post or wall. 10 reps and 5 to 6 sets for this. For the triceps use the bent arm pullover on bench likewise for 10 reps and 5 or 6 sets.

For the third month use the heavy swinging curls with barbell for 10 repetitions and 5 to 6 sets. For triceps do the pulley weight exercise given above for 12 reps and 5 to 6 sets.

Complete movements should be made in all exercises. Make the muscles cramp at the completion of each movement. Deep mental concentration is necessary in all training if maximum results are to be obtained. The muscles will ache after each exercise. Massage them lightly and when the ache is gone do another set. When you have completed all sets your muscles will feel very full and firm. They will be thoroughly worked and gorged with blood. The above programs used over a period should give you maximum development of the arm muscles if used conscientiously. If necessary, you can re-arrange the exercises or you may use just one group for the entire time, but we feel that better results will be forthcoming if they are all used just as given.

Three workouts per week is usually enough for arm specialization but very few can thrive on four workouts per week.

FOREARM SPECIALIZATION

The forearms in some people are almost as difficult to develop as the calves and often require special work to bring them up to proper proportions. Most fellows enjoy working them, however, so it isn’t as hard as it might seem.

No. 1. One of the finest exercises for the front of the forearm of the big belly of the muscles is the wrist curl. In this you are seating with the back of the forearm resting on the thighs while holding a light barbell in the hands. This gives solid support to the forearms as you curl the wrist up and down. Make each movement very complete. When lowering the bell allow the hands to open up so that the bar rolls out on the fingers. This works the muscles over a greater range.

You can also use the same movement in reverse for the backs of the forearms.

No. 2. For the back of the forearms one of the best is the back hand curl. You should get a good grip on the barbell (a small bar is easier to use than a large one) and you may find it helpful to use the hook grip (wrapping the fingers around the thumb for a more secure grip). This exercise can be performed while standing erect and if you lean against a wall or post it will prevent you from swinging. Some fellows like to perform this exercise on a steeply inclined bench. Do not allow the elbows to swing back, and as you curl, try to curl the wrists back also.
No. 3. Another very simple but effective forearm developer is performed by taking a barbell or dumbbell in the hand with arm hanging at the side. Now curl the wrist back and forth in both directions making each movement as complete and vigorous as possible. You may also take hold of the end of a solid dumbbell and rotate it all directions strongly.

No. 4. Among the best forearm developers is the old wrist roller with which most you are familiar. A rope is threaded through a hole in the center of a 2 inch wood roller that is 2 feet long. Then weights are tied to the other end of the 3 foot rope and the roller held at arms length in front of the face while you slowly roll the rope up on the roller against the resistance of the weight by alternately curling each wrist to the limit of its movement. You should roll it up both with the over grip and the under grip, as well as rolling it up both forwards and backwards. A few sets of this will work the forearm muscles to the extreme limit.

There are many other fine forearm exercises but most of them do not have the range of action we need to make them as effective as those given above. We have numbered the above so that it will be easier to refer to them.

For the first three weeks use the following exercises: No. 1. Work up to 5 or 6 sets of 15 to 20 reps. No. 2. Work up to 5 or 6 sets of 15 reps. Massage the muscles lightly between each set.

For the second three weeks use the following exercises: No. 3. Work up to 5 or 6 sets of 20 reps. No. 4. Work up to 6 or 7 sets of a complete roll up in different directions and hand positions so that it will reach the muscles from all directions.

This will give you a 6 weeks program. Of course you won’t start with the called-for number of sets but gradually work up to them. At a later date you may try a program using all four exercises but not until you fail to gain on the ones given above. Don’t expect gains that are too large. Remember, the forearms are tough and grow slowly. Three workouts are usually enough but a few men may gain best on 4 or 5 workouts per week. Massage the forearms between sets to help circulation. After you acquire forearms of the desired size you can do some strength stunts to give them power, such as carrying heavy weights in the hands, one hand deadlifts, and cleans, iron bending etc, Remember, a large and powerful pair of forearms can give you a pleasant sense of power and muscularity so don’t neglect them.

An alternate method of performing No. 1 is to place benches in a T-shape and lie on them on your back with the arms outstretched with the wrists and hands extending over the ends and holding dumbbells. In this position you can curl the wrists with greater freedom of action. By turning over on your face you can work the backs of the forearms in the same manner.

PECTORAL SPECIALIZATION

As a general rule the pectorals are rather easy to develop. However in some cases it is desirable to specialize on them.

The best exercise known at present for them is the supine press on bench with dumbbells. A barbell can be used but dumbbells give more direct pectoral action. Using a flat bench affects the lower and middle portions of the pectorals while using the incline bench affects the upper portions so you should vary your program to include some of both.

These two exercises are the only ones necessary for full and complete development of these muscles. Other exercises are effective but not as good as the above, so we will not give them, as it would only confuse the pupil. We will give you only one other exercise – the flying exercise on the flat and incline benches. Its action is almost identical with that of the supine press and you are limited in the amount of weight you can use and it is also quite painful to the elbows of some fellows. Most fellows prefer to perform this exercise with elbows slightly bent and using more weight.

We give you only one program – the supine press with dumbbells. If, for some reason, you can’t use this you may substitute the flying exercise (sometimes known as the lying crucifix).

Perform the supine presses with dumbbells on the flat bench working up to 5 sets of 12 repetitions each. Then do 5 sets of 12 reps on the incline bench. Start with one set, gradually working up to 5 sets. It may never be necessary to go to 5 sets to acquire the desired development.

In performing the dumbbell presses on bench it will throw more strain on the pectorals if you allow the dumbbells to swing out wide as they are lowered and bring them in as they are pressed upward.

DELTOID SPECIALIZATION

The deltoids can stand a considerable amount of heavy work, yet they can be strained if not worked judiciously. It is important that they be warmed up well before heavy work is attempted. A strained deltoid is difficult to cure.

Many fellows have superb deltoids and yet they feel they are lacking in development here because they happen to be of a certain type whose deltoids lay flat and do not appear large. On the other hand some fellows with comparatively small deltoids appear to have large ones because they are so constructed and the shoulder girdle on which they are supported is such that they are prominently displayed. Analyze your type carefully and do not be confused.

Probably the most effective exercise for the front of the deltoid is the supine press on the bench – either a flat bench of slightly inclined. Most men who specialize on this exercise have very good deltoids, in fact it is often out of proportion to the rest of the deltoid which they often neglect. Other exercises are also effective for this muscle but we feel this one is the best. You are fortunate in being able to specialize on this muscle and the pectorals at the same time.

For the middle portion of the deltoids as well as the back part a pair of pulley weights with floor pulleys are very valuable. Not all of you will have these available so we will also give you a program with weights.

First we give you the pulley weight exercises:

No. 1 – With the wall pulleys do the arm spread with straight arms wile facing the pulleys. Keep the arms just slightly above level of the shoulders and bring the hands as far back as possible then allow them to come back together again. This will strongly affect the back portion of the deltoids as well as work many of the upper back muscles strenuously. Place one foot slightly in front of the other to give you a strongly braced position. Keep the arms locked throughout.

No. 2 – While standing erect over the floor pulleys, keeping the arms straight, raise the hands out to the sides (with an over grip) until they reach slightly above shoulder level. At this point the side portions of the deltoids have reached their maximum contraction. This is a very direct exercise for the middle portion of the deltoid muscle.

No. 3 – The same exercise as given in No. 2 can be performed with dumbbells and in the same manner. Be sure to keep the palms down. Keep the arms well back – don’t allow them to swing forward. Be sure you completely contract the deltoids at each movement. You will feel a slight cramp in the muscle when you make a complete contraction.

No. 4 – This is similar in action to No. 1 except you use dumbbells and lean forward until your body is at right angles to your legs. From this position take the dumbbells in your hands and then with arms locked raise them while maintaining the same body position. Do not allow the body to bob up and down. Keep the arms pointing away from the body. Don’t allow them to come to the sides.

The first program will consist of weights altogether. Use No. 3 and No. 4 exercises and do up to 5 sets of 10 to 12 reps. Then do the incline press with dumbbells for 5 to 6 sets and for 12 reps. This will give all portions of your deltoids a strong and direct workout.

The second program consists of pulley weight exercises and dumbbell work. Perform the incline press and bench as before. Then do exercise No. 1 and No 2 for the side or middle portion and back portion of the deltoids. Use 12 reps and work up to 5 or 6 sets in these latter two exercises.

If you have both dumbbells and pulley weights you can alternate these two programs every three weeks. Three times per week is usually often enough to work out and a few will be able to thrive on four workouts.

LATISSIMUS SPECIALIZATION

Many men find themselves lacking adequate development in this important muscle. It is usually not hard to develop, however, with specialized work.

No. 1 – If you have overhead pulleys you will find nothing is more effective for developing the latissimus muscles than the pull down from overhead to the hip with arm straight. Do this with one arm at a time. If you are exercising the right arm, stand slightly to the right of center of the overhead pulley. Grasp the handle, and keeping the arm straight, palm down, bring the arm and hand to the hip then bend the body slightly to the right from the waist at the same time. This will give complete contraction of the latissimus muscle. For variety you can also perform this by bringing the hand down in front instead of the side.

No 2 – With the overhead pulleys and with a four foot bar attached, kneel under the bar and grasp it with both hands and a wide grip and while leaning slightly forward pull the bar down to the back of the neck. This is one of the most popular latissimus exercises.

No. 3 – The two arm chin to back of neck. You should do this with a wide grip. You may not be strong enough to do the proper number of repetitions at first.

No. 4 – The two arm rowing exercise is among the best latissimus exercises when properly performed. It works the muscles over all and a little differently than the other exercises.

The first program will include pulley weight exercises. Use No. 1 and No 2. Perform these for 12 reps and work up to 5 sets.

The second program consists of No 3 for 12 reps and 4 to 6 sets and tie weights to the waist when needed for added resistance. Perform No. 4 for 15 reps and work up to 5 or 6 sets. Do not cheat by bobbing up and down. Pull the weight up to the abdomen rather than to the chest if you want to work for latissimus development. Keep the legs straight and allow the back to hump as you lower the weight, but flatten the back as you pull the weight up. Use plenty of weight but not so much that you can’t perform it correctly. You may alternate the above program every three or four weeks.

BACK SPECIALIZATION

Special work for the spinal erector muscles, buttock muscles, trapezius muscles and others.

A man can never make his back too strong or well developed, but strangely, this part is often neglected, probably because the bodybuilder is not so conscious of it because he can’t see it so easily even in a mirror.

We include a number of muscles because it is difficult to exercise one of them without affecting the others.

No. 1 – We feel, after much observation and training of many men, that the most effective exercise for developing large size and power in the muscles of the back is the dead hanging clean. There are two methods of performing this and you will do well to practice both of them. The first method is performed as a regular clean, using the split or squat and pulling the weight in to the shoulders. If you are not interested in Weightlifting you will not need to bother so much about getting extremely low under the weight, but can depend on the back, hips, legs and arms to get the weight in to the shoulders. Concentrate on the back, however, since it is this part we are now concerned about developing. Make the back snap straight with force and speed, arching it as you pull the weight in to the shoulders. This will give you maximal contraction of the spinal muscles.

The second method is one in which you use a great deal more weight and make no attempt to pull it in to the shoulders but just pull it as high as possible while throwing the head back and arching the back as in the regular clean. Then lower the weight and pull it up again in the same method. You should use the dead hang rebound method in both these cleans. In doing this do not lower the weight then make a second raising and lowering before cleaning, but come right down from one clean and lower the bar until the plates are about three inches from the floor, and immediately give a terrific pull into another clean and so on until you have finished all your reps. Start with light weights until you learn the movements correctly, then work up to heavy weights. In the latter method you will use weights somewhat heavier than you use in the clean. It is sometimes known as the dead hang dead lift. Use the same leg and back positions as you would use in the clean or dead lift with a flat back and the head up and hips down.

No. 2 – The Stiff Legged Deadlift is usually considered among the very best back developers. Among standard exercises it is the best. It can be performed on a regular floor but some men with flexible backs like to stand on a low box so that they can lower the bar further. However, this is a dangerous method unless your back is properly constructed for it. A large number of bodybuilders use the hopper for these deadlifts. This piece of apparatus gives a rebound to the weight when it is lowered quickly to the hopper and during this brief bounce the spinal vertebrae have an opportunity to reset themselves for another effort. The use of one of these hoppers will largely eliminate the possibility of back strain that is often feared from the stiff legged deadlift. At it simplest, two heavy planks of wood secured by crossbeams will suffice.

With these three exercises anyone should be able to attain maximum development and great strength. We suggest that you alternate these three exercises every month. Start out with the regular dead hang clean and work up to 5 or 6 sets of 10 reps. Follow this program for a month then practice the dead hang dead lifts for a month using the same reps and sets. For the third month do the stiff legged dead lift working up to 15 reps and 5 sets.


LEG SPECIALIZATION

Almost every fine, powerful pair of legs in existence today is the result of the squat.

You should do many sets of from 10 to 15 or 20 reps. The number of sets you can work up to will depend on your energy and ability. It may be as high as seven sets, or you may be able to obtain sufficient results with only two sets. Always perform your squats with a flat back. Use as heavy a weight as you can for the required number of reps. Follow the methods of deep breathing as advised under the paragraph on breathing. You won’t have to concentrate on it to the extent you do when trying to gain weight or build a large chest. You will find that you need considerable rest between sets as this is a very strenuous program.

If you want to develop the lower part of your leg more than the upper part then you should squat with the heels on a block of wood or you can squat on the toes with your back against the sliding post. Keep feet close to the post. Sit erect and go straight up and down.

For general thigh development, however, with equal development for the front and back of the thigh, nothing can equal the regular flat footed squat with the back flat, or even arched a little.

Three workouts per week is ample and two is often best. Leg specialization is hard work and requires lots of energy, necessitating lots of rest and sleep, with a full diet.

ABDOMINAL SPECIALIZATION

Specialization on the abdomen brings very quick results as these muscles grow easily in most people.

The majority of bodybuilders, and for that matter instructors too, are unaware of the true action of the abdominal muscles. They do not cause the legs and body to jack-knife upon each other as many believe. This action is caused by two muscles deep inside the abdominal cavity that are attached to either side of the spine and to the thigh bones on the other ends. The rectus abdominus muscles that give the pleasing washboard effect to the abdomen have as their action the pulling of the sternum of breastbone closer to the pubic bone. Therefore they have but little to do with the sit-up action except to pull these two points closer together and prevent the trunk from buckling backward as the sit-up is performed. Now, this doesn’t mean that the sit-up is not a good abdominal exercise. It just means that you must perform it a certain way and concentrate on certain points for best results in rectus abdominus development. As you perform the sit-up, whether it is on the floor or an incline board, you should concentrate on doubling the trunk up as soon as you can at the beginning of the sit-up and double it up all you can. Don’t wait until you are erect or nearly so to double up. The valuable resistance to this action is then gone. So don’t forget to contract the rectus abdominus muscles before you come erect and while resistance is greatest. To make the action more effective and give greater range of action to the muscles it will help to perform the sit-up on an incline bench on which the bottom end is cut away so you can arch the back as you go down thus stretching the rectus muscles to complete exhaustion.

You can also use the Roman Chair for the same purpose but you do not get as favorable a contraction movement on it as you do on the incline bench where the feet are higher than the head.

This sit-up exercise, either with or without the incline bench, should be performed 15 reps before adding more weight. You can work up to 5 or 6 sets of this. Remember what we have told you regarding correct performance, and don’t use so much weight that you can’t do it right. If possible you should build yourself an incline bench with the bottom end cut away. The bottom end should still be about 2 ½ feet above the floor to allow space for the upper body to hang down.

Performed as we advise above, the sit-up movement is the best and most complete exercise yet devised for the rectus muscles. You should need no other for your specialization. The leg raise is very similar in muscle action to the sit-up and to our belief it is much inferior to the sit-up for developmental purposes.

The sides of the waist are composed of three muscles that can be worked to a limited extent by twisting the trunk while performing the sit-up exercise. But here again the simplest exercise is the best and most effective. The simple side bend with a dumbbell in one hand will give these muscles a thorough workout. Some of these side bends should be directly to the side but others should be twisting-to-the-front bends. Use the same number of sets and reps as in the sit-up for each side. Make all movements complete. You can eventually work up to a considerable amount of weight in this exercise and you will find a dumbbell with a small handle is much easier to hold.

DEVELOPING THE CHEST CAVITY

Perhaps no one of our bodily functions is more important than breathing. We can live a long time without food and a considerable time without water or sleep but we die almost at once without air. We can not live in good health without plenty of fresh air. All men with spacious chest cavities are vigorous, healthy and full of drive and energy. Therefore it behooves us all to develop our rib box to its maximum size. This is one part of the body that we feel can never be developed too large.

The most valuable means, so far discovered for developing such a large chest is forced deep breathing, brought on by either heavy breathing squats or bodyweight Eells type breathing squats. We prefer the heavy type for various reasons but good results have been obtained with the Eells bodyweight squats.

For the purpose of added size in the chest cavity, one should work up to 20 reps while taking 3 to 6 very deep breaths between each squat, always striving to breath into the upper chest and lift the chest as high as possible with each breath, throwing the head back and lifting the chest and shoulders slightly. If you are specializing on development of the rib box this breathing with the squats is very important. Some men have gained several inches in one month by this method. You can work up to two or three sets of these squats. Each set should be followed by a set of pullovers on a bench with a weight that will give the maximum stretch to the rib box. Some prefer to use the bent arm pullover and more weight. You will also find that the supine press with dumbbells on bench will also give a lift to the chest due to the pull of the pectorals on the sternum and ribs as they contract to bring the arms in.

The Hise shoulder shrug described later in this course will also give added size to the chest cavity as well as giving it a high arch. Perform it as described in another part of this course.

These are the most effective exercises for this purpose known and should be given a great deal of attention.

An exercise that has proven even more effective than the pullover is the Rader Chest Pull developed and taught by the author and explained fully in a later part of this course. When properly learned and executed it will do amazing things in expanding the chest cavity and giving you a full, deep chest. It usually takes a considerable period of time to learn to perform it most effectively, so stay with it and practice it diligently. We usually recommend 20 reps of this exercise and it can be performed anywhere and any time you feel like it, making it a most convenient exercise as well.

It is understood that you will use as much weight as possible while performing the exercises correctly for the required number of repetitions. When you reach the required number of repetitions and perform two workouts at that number, increase the weight.

By the time the pupil has progressed to the point where he needs specialization, he will have become well acquainted with his body and will best know what number of repetitions and sets he gains on. We have given a certain number of repetitions and sets that have been found to be most effective, generally, and we expect him to use his judgment in this matter. Further information regarding number of repetitions and sets will be found elsewhere.

TRAINING FOR THE OLDER MAN

After a man reaches the age of 50, and sometimes even 40, he sometimes feels that he is an old man, and tho he realizes the need for exercise for health’s sake, he thinks that he might be getting for heavy work.

This all depends on how he has trained in years past. If he has taken the best care of his health he can feel assured that he can stand rather heavy training until he is 50. Furthermore he will have enough experience and “know how” to arrange his own workout program from then on. We do not feel that man over 50 should try to excel the younger fellows in lifting meets regardless of how good he thinks he feels. However we do feel that fairly heavy bodybuilding training or even lifting training will be beneficial if he has always kept in good shape.

The man of 40 or 50 who has just started training and is not in too good shape is a different proposition. First, he should have a check up by his doctor to determine if his heart is good, what his blood pressure is, etc. Even though his heart may not be perfect, or if his blood pressure is a little high does not mean that he cannot do barbell exercise. It simply means that he should proceed cautiously – make progress in the addition of repetitions and poundages more slowly. He should work out with clocklike regularity and should not allow himself to dissipate. Under such conditions and with care, even bad hearts can be corrected in most cases and blood pressure brought down. The man with a sound heart and other organs, who has never kept in condition, should also observe care and regularity in his earlier training.

A man of over 40 is decidedly not old, but he is more subject to strained muscles etc., than is the younger fellow. Therefore, he should warm up before his heavy workouts with a few repetitions with light weights. Take your time and don’t hurry. Take a little longer to rest between sets. It has generally been found that older men can gain on fewer repetitions than the younger men. Where we advise 10 repetitions, you may find 7 or 8 sufficient. As a general rule you can get by on fewer sets when specializing on certain muscles. Usually 3 or 4 sets are enough for you.

Usually the older man can use fairly heavy weights if he works into them gradually. He need not lag far behind the younger men in this respect. However, do not hurry the process. Be content to get there a little slower. This does not mean that you are not to work hard, however. It is going to be just as hard for you to make gains as it is for the younger man, and you must work for all you get.

It is also advisable for the older man to use fewer exercises than the younger man. If you young fellows use 12 exercises in your advanced program, then about 7 or 8 will be ample for the older man. If he is just training for good health he will often find that 5 exercises are plenty. In this case he will not need to do over one set of each exercise.

The older man should also practice a few feats of suppleness and stretching movements. A few quick lifts practiced occasionally will be beneficial also.

It is important that the older man keep a tranquil attitude and that he be relaxed, both mentally and physically. He should keep regular hours and observe correct diet more carefully. If he has been in the habit of overeating he should moderate his eating habits. He no longer needs the heavy meals that a growing young man needs. Neither will he require the starches, sweets and fats that a young fellow does. He will benefit by reducing his intake of these. Do not eliminate them, but cut them down in favor of fruits, green vegetables and dairy products.

Most of the older fellows will have a tendency to add weight around the waist. For this reason we feel that it is advisable to add some abdominal work to their programs. At first you will find that your waist gets a little large when you start abdominal work but in a short time, if you persist, it will start down. It takes hard work to cut it off here, though. You may find it impossible if you do not cut down on starches, fats and sweets (this means liquors too) in your diet. With this help, tho, you should have no difficulty.

THE EELLS BODYWEIGHT SQUAT SYSTEM

This method was developed several years ago by Roger Eells of the Eells Health Studio of Columbus, Ohio. It is very similar to the “Rader Master Bodybuilding and Weight Gaining System” in every way except one. Instead of recommending heavy weights for the deep knee bend or squat, Eells recommends light weights – never more than a man’s bodyweight, even for advanced training. That is, if you weigh 150 pounds, you need never use over 150 pounds on the bar. The reason we have not favored or taught this system is that we feel that it does not develop the quality of muscle in the legs not does it develop the great strength and power in the legs that heavy squats do. It does, however, stimulate metabolism and causes growth to take place in the bodybuilder using it. It is used with great success by Mr. Eells in his work. Most of his pupils being business men, they use little more than 60 pounds in this exercise. It is not the amount of weight you use so much as it is the breathing that goes with it that causes the improvement. However, this does not mean that you can use very light weights with maximum benefit. Some weight resistance must be felt.

Breathing should be done to the maximum capacity of the chest and through the mouth, 3 to 6 deep breaths (sometimes 8 to 10 when needed) between each squat. If you become dizzy from the deep breathing then add a little more weigh. When taking a breath try to take it in the upper chest and not in the abdomen. To do this you will have to shrug the shoulders and lift the weight of the bar off the chest. This will give you the deep, full upper chest without the increase in lower chest and waist measurement resulting from the old style abdominal breathing.

The other exercises with the Eells system are the same as in this course. The addition of the stiff legged dead lift is sometimes made. A set of pullovers after each set of squats should be done with this program.

You should work out three times per week. Obtain plenty of sleep and rest. Eat a full diet with plenty of milk. Other training principles as given earlier in this course should be followed.


THE DEAD LIFT PROGRAM FOR WEIGHT GAINING

There has been but little experimenting done with this exercise for weight gaining but those who were willing to work hard on it for a period made remarkable gains in bodyweight and strength. The principle reason for it not being more popular as a weight gaining medium is because it is very hard work used correctly for this purpose. Some men prefer it to the squat, however, and for these we present the program outlined below for weight gaining.

Harold Ansorge was perhaps the most outstanding example of rapid gains in strength and bodyweight. He gained 20 lbs., and a great deal in strength and bodyweight. During this experiment he exceeded the world dead lift record with a lift of 680 lbs.

Due to the fact that it is a very strenuous exercise it is not advisable to use many other exercises with it. We suggest the supine press on bench, two arm curl and two arm pullover as being ample. The dead lift will give heavy work to the entire back and legs.

It is not necessary, and is in fact unwise, to work out too often on this program. Never more than three times per week and it is usually best to do but two workouts per week. Ansorge, one of the world’s strongest men, worked out only once every five days. After a preliminary hardening process you should work out as follows:

The first night should be devoted to three sets with reasonably light poundage and 18 to 20 repetitions. Then gradually add poundage to the bell until you feel that you are ready for a more strenuous program. The above is for a hardening up process and should be started easy at first.

The following program is varied somewhat in that you can change the program every workout night. The first night start with a poundage that you can make 20 repetitions with, then after a rest add weight to the bar for 15 more repetitions. Then another rest and add more weight for a set of 10 repetitions. Now, another rest and reduce the weight to where you can make 15 repetitions.

The second workout night use a poundage with which you can make 5 sets of 10 reps.

The third workout go back to the program of the first night and alternate your programs that way every other night.

It may be that you can work up to 6 sets while others may find that three sets are enough for specialization.

The breathing method in this exercise is very important, so observe the following instructions carefully. There are two methods. In one method you stand erect with the weight and take 3 to 6 breaths (you will find that the pressure of the arms on the sides will make it difficult, but this will greatly strengthen the breathing muscles). Take in all the air possible and make a secondary effort to cram in more. Hold the last breath and make another repetition. Now, of course, by observing these breathing instructions you may cut your poundage somewhat, but the breathing is more important than the poundage if you wish to make bodyweight gains.

Another preferred method is to stand up after each repetition (after placing the weight on the floor) and take 3 to 6 or more deep breaths between repetitions. Then grasp the weight and take a deep breath and make another repetition.

We caution you to use good form in the dead lift, with the back flat and hips low. Make the lifts with the legs, as much as possible.

Follow each set of dead lifts with pullovers.


THE CLEAN AND JERK PROGRAM FOR WEIGHT GAINING

This very popular lift is a good exercise for all round development and an excellent method of weight gaining if properly performed for this purpose. It is probably the most strenuous of all exercises and therein lies its value as a stimulator of metabolism and a weight gaining medium.

Much the same principles of procedure are used as in the squat or dead lift.

Because it is so strenuous you will find that, as a general rule, two workout periods per week will be sufficient. You may find yourself rather sore at first if you are not careful to progress slowly.

Some of you fellows with good clean and jerk records may be surprised how little weight you will be able to use in this as a repetition exercise. At any rate we advise you to start very light and add weight as you can.

You will also find that in addition to being a marvelous all-round bodybuilder, that the practice of this lift as an exercise gives you added ability on the King of Lifts and increases your energy, flexibility and speed.

You may use either the split style or the squat style. If you use the split style, we advise you to learn to split either foot forward in your training as an exercise to work both legs equally.

You should strive to use the best possible form on every repetition. Also it is advisable to do a few warm up repetitions with a real light weight before starting on the heavier program. This will warm all the muscles and get you in the groove, so to speak, regarding the correct form.

After you are properly warmed up, start out by doing 12 repetitions with whatever poundage you find you can handle correctly for this number of repetitions. We want to stress the importance of correct breathing here again. Take 3 to 6 deep breaths between each repetition of the clean and jerk. Make them deep and through the mouth.

After this first set you will be breathing very hard and we advise you to do a set of 15 or 20 pullovers with a light weight.

You’ll need to rest a few minutes than make another set of the clean and jerk of about 10 repetitions. Then more pullovers and another rest. Now do another set of 18 to 20 repetitions with a lighter weight and another set of pullovers. This will be a terrific workout for most fellows. A few will want another set or so. Some fellows will find two sets enough.

We do not advise any other exercises to be used with this program, just the clean and jerk and the pullover.

The two arm snatch can also be used in this manner, though we do not feel it is as effective. You will be able to do more sets in the snatch, however, because it is not nearly so strenuous.

You should watch for signs of overwork on this program as it is possible to overwork until you have found out just how much you can stand. It is very strenuous but equally beneficial.

AN ABBREVIATED PROGRAM OF BODYBUILDING

Many times a pupil may find himself without sufficient time for a complete and heavy workout period for one night or for a lengthy period of time. Others will find that they never have time for a long program of exercise. For these we present the following program as being one of the very best for the purpose. Not only is it the very best for the purpose. Not only is it a good program for keeping in condition but it is also a good program for all-round muscle development. We have used many abbreviated programs but find this one is the very best that we have found so far. It is also a good foundation program from which to build up a more varied program. If you have time for it you could add a press from behind neck and a curl. If you have a tendency toward adding weight around the waist you might want to add some abdominal exercise. Or you can add any other exercises where it seems you need work. But, as we have said before, this is an abbreviated program developed and arranged for those who find they haven’t time for a larger program of exercises. Also it is ideal for those who are low in energy and cannot gain well on a heavier program. It is also a very ideal weight gaining program, in fact, one of the very best, using, as it does, the largest muscle masses in the body. For all these things we can recommend it very highly.

There are only three exercises – the supine press on bench (of course, if you do not have a bench or anyone to hand off the weight, you can perform the exercise on the floor), the two arm rowing exercise (if you do several sets of this exercise we recommend you do part of the sets with bar pulled to abdomen and the others bar pulled to chest. This will work all the muscles across the back) and the squat.

We recommend that you do the supine press 12 repetitions and the rowing exercise 12 repetitions and the squat 20 repetitions. You should also develop a similar breathing system with the rowing and supine press. That is, take two deep breaths while weight is on the floor between repetitions of the row, and two deep breaths while weight is at straight arms length in the supine press. Hold the breath while doing the supine press just as you do in the squat.

You should work up to 4 to 6 sets in each exercise. If you do this , you should perform some of your sets of squats with different repetitions, as for instance; the first set with 20 reps, the second set with a heavier weight for 10 reps, the third set with a little less weight for 15 reps and the fourth set with more weight and 10 reps.

In any case you should always follow each set with a set of pullovers. Follow other training advice as given earlier in the course. Followed properly, and with many sets, the above program can become one of the fastest weight gaining programs in existence as it uses nearly all the large muscle masses of the body.

REBOUND PRINCIPLE OF DEVELOPING MUSCLE AND STRENGTH

This principle is not new but it has never been used extensively and conscientiously by bodybuilders until it was analyzed and presented in “Iron Man” magazine.

It is one of the key secrets of developing great strength as well as unusual muscularity. It is performed naturally in the squat by most men, as well as in the supine press. It is the real secret for the success in developing great strength through the dead hang snatch and clean. The dead hang lifts re rebound lifts. We present the idea behind this method in the following so that you can apply it to any of all of your exercises. It would require too much space to describe its application to every exercise, but once you grasp the principle it is easily applied by anyone.

In the dead hang clean you grasp the bar and pull it to the shoulders in the regular style for the clean, then lower it with fair speed (to lower too slowly will defeat the purpose of this style of performance), then when the plates are about 3 inches or so from the floor, stop the weight and pull it again into the shoulders for the clean. The sudden stop and reversal of muscle action against the resistance of the weight places a much greater strain on the muscles than can be obtained in any other way. The same identical method can also be applied to the two arm snatch, dead lift and one arm snatch and clean.

When applying it to the squat you start the squat in the regulation way but when the thighs reach parallel position with tops of thighs you immediately tense the muscles an come back up. Remember, do not allow yourself to go to the bottom of the squat and stop there. You catch yourself with muscle tension and start back up. Do not squat too low or you will not get the effect you would otherwise get on the muscles. At first, you will not use as much weight, perhaps, as in the slow squat, but later on you will be able to use more and you will find yourself making added gains in strength and development. (It is never advisable to squat clear to bottom in the squat with heavy weights due to danger of a strain in the Sacroiliac area, or lower part of hips where spine and hip bones come together). Of course you hold the breath when performing any rebound exercise.

When using it with the supine press on bench you perform the exercise in the usual manner, except that you lower the weight comparatively fast, and just before the bar touches the chest you stop the weight and start back up. In other words, you rebound it from the tense muscles – it gets what might be termed a muscle bounce from the tensed muscles. Here again we find that this is the reason for the superiority of the supine on the bench to the supine on the floor. On the bench you are almost forced to use some kind of rebound with a heavy weight due to the fact that you can’t allow it to rest on elbows on floor between repetitions. Here again, you may, if you desire, use the rebound method by stopping the weight’s downward movement just before the elbows touch the floor. Of course, this shortens the movement, which in any case is not complete when performed on the floor, and therefore, it is advisable to perform the supine press on the bench whenever possible.

DIFFERENT REPETITION SCHEDULE

It is generally conceded that the practice of doing about 10 repetitions for upper body and 15 to 20 for the lower body is right for most people. However, this is not always the case. Some fe4llows will gain best when doing 12 to 15 repetitions for the upper body and as many as 30 for the lower body. On the other hand a great many men will gain best in both strength and development on a schedule of about 5 or 6 repetitions for the upper body and 8 to 10 for the lower body. In the latter case several sets of each exercise are almost invariably used. Therefore the schedules of repetitions as given in this course are not to be taken as absolutely inflexible. By the time the student reaches an advanced stage in his work he probably knows what suits him best. However, it has so seldom been recommended that repetition schedules of 5 or 6 be used for the lower body with many sets being used, that we want the pupil to try it, and in many cases he will be agreeably surprised. This method will allow you to use a great deal more weight, thereby giving the needed added resistance, and by doing more sets you will have an improved method of bodybuilding. It must also be remembered that the young fellows usually gain best on the higher repetition schedules while the older fellows do better with fewer reps.

In addition to the above, we find it almost impossible to develop a high degree of strength on high repetitions. Strength is, to our way of thinking, of more importance than size. Of course, you must have some size too, if you are to have maximum strength, but of recent years too much time has been given to the science of developing size at any cost.

THE HISE BREATHING SHOULDER SHRUG

This is a rather recent discovery made and developed by J.C. Hise and has had amazing success in the development of a high arched chest, good posture, stronger diaphragm (termed the LIFE muscle by Hise) and weight gaining in cases where nothing else seemed to help. Doubtless many new improvements will be made in the future, but we present you the best methods to date.

Originally, rather light weights were thought to be better. You will, therefore, have to have loading standards for your bar as you may reach 600 or 700 pounds or more in this exercise. You will start out with rather light weights however, and gradually work up, as there is possibility of strain if you start out with heavy weights. Most fellows will do well to start with about 100 pounds until they have learned the correct movements and positions.

You take the weight on the shoulders ass if you were doing the regular squat. Then, standing with feet in solid position you take a deep breath – always striving to breathe into the upper part of the chest, as high as possible while shrugging the shoulders upward as high as you can. You will also tense the front of neck muscles as this greatly aids in lifting the chest higher, causing you to make quite a face. You will also make every effort to breathe in as deeply as possibly. Then breathe out and sag down, then go through the same procedure again and so on until you complete 20 repetitions. You will probably, at times, find it helpful to work up to 30 repetitions and even 40 repetitions. Most men perform about 3 sets of this exercise. However, this will be governed by the amount of energy you have to expend. Some men find that get like to rock forward on the toes when performing this exercise, however, it is not necessary.

When you reach heavy weights you will find that you are not able to shrug the bar very high. Mr. Hise says that this varies in different people and is not too important as long as you are shrugging it as high as you can. Sometimes it may raise 2 inches, but with others possibly only about a half inch or so.

It is not necessary to use any other exercises with this shrug but we recommend that you use at least the two arm pullover. Most fellows using it will add other exercises for all-round development. You will probably need to use a pad under the bar at first until the shoulders get toughened up to stand the weight on the trapezius muscle.

To most people this will not seem like an exercise and they are likely to dismiss it without a fair trial. This is a mistake, as its virtues have been proven. You will soon see your chest becoming higher and larger and it will take on a better taper. You will have better posture and your waist will probably become smaller.

This exercise has also been used as a reducing exercise with success, though this use has not been widespread enough to prove its value or make any definite schedules for its use for this purpose other than a note that heavy weights must be worked into this.

The shoulder shrug has been very effective if developing the chest, giving great sustaining power and general well being. You may get dizzy at first from taking so much oxygen into the lungs but this will not injure you in any way.

SPECIALIZING ON ONE EXERCISE FOR MAXIMUM GAINS

It is sometimes desirable to specialize on one lift or exercise to the exclusion of all others. The reason for this is that you can direct all your energies and effort in one direction. This will enable you to make much faster progress and reach greater heights of strength and development than if you spread your efforts out over several movements. It is not advisable to make this a permanent habit, as it might result in an uneven development of the body, but it is helpful at times to do this. An example of this is William Boone, who has reached a 420 jerk and a 700 deadlift expecting to do more, as well as a 315 bent press and a 360 jerk press all by this method of specializing in one of these lifts at a time. The same thing can apply to the development of increased size as well. For instance, if your legs are rather small then you could specialize on leg work – perhaps the squat alone for a certain period, If your back is weak you could specialize on the deadlift alone for a length of time. In doing this you would work with heavy weights and many sets. The exact number would have to be determined by the pupil himself. Find out what you can stand and progress best on. Also you will start out with one or two sets and then work up to more. You will also vary the number of repetitions and amount of weight in the different sets. You will find that by specializing in this manner you can work up to a tremendous amount of work for the part in question and forcer the most stubborn muscles to respond.

Of course, if you are working the small muscles, like arm muscles, you would be able to use more exercises. For instance, for the biceps you would use two different types of curls, or for the triceps you could use the supine press and the bent arm pullover or the standing triceps curl. Or you might be able to work both muscles if they were to be specialized on, and use perhaps 4 exercises. However, you should not get too many exercises, as the secret of this method is to limit the exercises and work them to the limit of your ability to stand it.

You will have to be watchful and not overwork, as you can go stale on this program just as you can on any other from overwork.

Pupils often ask what the sign of overwork is and we tell that that when they feel tired all the time and perhaps become nervous and irritable beyond normal they should check to see if they might not be overworking and perhaps under-resting.

THE USE OF SHORT MOVEMENTS FOR POWER & DEVELOPMENT

It is possible by the following methods to develop very great strength and help you pass that sticking point in your lifts. It will also, in many instances, help you to added development when other methods seem to fail.

An example of what we mean by short movements is the half or quarter squat. In this exercise you can work up to tremendous poundages. This will often bring your regular squat up a lot and in many cases will start you gaining in leg development when you may have been at a standstill. It will also give you great power in such lifts as the jerk etc. It will give you muscle and ligament strength obtainable in no other way. Every bodybuilder and lifter should spend a specialized period on half and quarter squats for the power and development he can obtain from them.

The deadlift can be worked in much the same manner. William Boone, who specialized on this lift, started out by digging a hole in the ground 8 inches deep. He stood in the hole and did his deadlifts. This enabled him to use about 200 pounds more than he normally could do on the ground. He worked up to very high poundages while standing in this hole. Then when he had reached a satisfactory poundage he started filling the hole up and this when he had the hole filled he was doing a great many more pounds in his deadlift than had ever been possible for him before.

The same system can be used in the supine press on floor. You can place blocks under each end of the bar and press from this, or if you wish you can press up a heavier weight than you could normally supine press by the belly toss method, then do your repetitions by allowing the weight to come down only about half the way before pressing it back up. When you reach satisfactory poundage in this you can make the movements a little greater until you are supine pressing far more than you ever have before. Your triceps and pectorals as well as the front of the deltoids will have taken on new size and shape.

In regard to the deadlift above – if you do not train out of doors where you can dig a hole, you can place blocks of wood under the plates as we advise in the paragraph on the supine press.

When you first start some of these short movements you may find that you can’t do much more than in the complete movement, but this is because you are no stronger than the poundages you have been using can make you. In other words, you have been cheating your muscles of the full power possible to them because you have limited the poundage to what you could do complete movements with.

We do not give all the exercises that can be used this way but only enough to demonstrate the principle of the thing so that you can apply it to any other exercises you happen to be interested in. We do not advise a man to go on a permanent program of this sort but it is very wise to go on such programs at certain times for specialization periods. You will be amazed at the all-round body strength these movements will give you.

A similar method can be used for developing the jerk. You should take very heavy weights off the standards in hands at shoulders and do quarter squats in this position, coming up fast and trying to heave the weight as high off the shoulders as you can, which won’t be much but it is the effort that does the job. Then in the overhead portion of the lift you should suspend the bar from chains from the ceiling and load it up, then get under the bar, which has been suspended at the height of the top the head, and take the position of the jerk in split position and lift the bar on straight arms until you stand erect in the finishing position of the jerk. While holding it as it thus, lower the weight just a trifle and press it back to arms length again. Do this about three times for each time you get up from the jerk position. If you have no overhead chains you can use high standards but in this case you may have to drop the weight each time, then unload it on the ground, then load it back up on the rack for the next repetition. The practice of this exercise will soon develop great power in the jerk, especially when used in conjunction with the quarter squats with the weight at the shoulders as described above.

You can use the same method for the bent press by supporting weights at various heights. By a little thought you can devise ways of applying this principle to every exercise and lift to its benefit. This is a system that was much used by the old timers but has been neglected in recent years by modern lifters and bodybuilders. It is very valuable and not to be minimized in its importance.

HOW TO SHAPE UP AFTER WEIGHT GAINING

Quite often, after a man has spent considerable time on a weight gaining and muscle building program he finds that he lacks shape in certain parts of his body or proper proportions. Also, he sometimes has accumulated a little fat around the waist, which is objectionable.

Since we have covered specialization on different parts of the body in the first part of this course we well not dwell on it again here. If you have certain parts of your body that are below the proper size to harmonize with the rest of your body, you can pick out the special program given for that part and specialize on it.

This will leave us with only the waist line to consider. This is a problem to be sure, if you do not know how to go about it. The best policy is not to allow it to get too far along. Of course, for the very thin men it is desirable to leave the abdomen alone for a time until the weight gaining is well in progress, for hark work on the waist line has a tendency to keep the weight down. However, once you are well started on your weight gaining program you can add a set of abdominal exercises such as the sit up or leg raise.

Once you have acquired a little fat around the waist line you are in for some heavy abdominal work if you want to take it off. You may use the sit up or the leg raise, or both, as described in the first chapter on abdominal specialization. You will work up to many sets of fairly high repetitions. You should go as high as 20 or 30 reps (some fellows go even higher) and many sets. You can work up to as many as 10 sets or more. Use weight behind the neck or attached to the feet. This will give you 300 to 500 reps per workout. Of course, you cannot do this the first workout. It may take you weeks to work up to that many. However, it is important that you give the abdominals a heavy workout. Some fellows work out every day. One day they use weights and the next day they may use nothing but high repetitions. Here again, you must observe caution and work up gradually so that you will not go stale by using up more energy than you can replace. But in order4 to reduce the waist you have to work close to this point.

Now, to make it easier, we advise a lighter diet. This will give you the results 5 or 6 times as fast and you will not have to go on too strenuous a diet either. You should cut your consumption of starchy foods such as bread, potatoes etc. in half. Likewise with fats, such as fat meats (leave them out altogether but can use lean meats), butter or butter substitutes, nuts, oils, dressings, etc. Also cut down on your sweets even more than this. Such things as pie, cake, candy, sugar, syrups, ice cream and soft drinks as well as beer and other liquors.

We might say that unless you do make some adjustments in diet you will find it almost impossible to cut the waist down to the desired proportions.
It is to be expected that you will lose some weight and that your other proportions will go down
slightly as even your arms and legs may have a little excess tissue that will come off. Such tissue is of no value when it exceeds a normal amount. Of course, we do not favor being too finely trained either.

In order that you will not lose too much from your arms, legs and chest, we suggest that you cut your repetitions and sets down on the other exercises during this abdominal specialization. Try about 5 to 7 repetitions on most of then and not over 8 or 10 on the squats etc. One set may be enough, and not over two sets. This will maintain the condition, strength and size of your muscles without burning off too much tissue. We might also mention that you should also do the side exercise as given in the chapter on abdominal specialization. Use high repetitions and several sets on this also.

This exercise program and a moderate diet will bring your weight under control. We might also mention that you can eat all the fruits and green vegetables you want without fear that they will fatten you. Use these in place of the foods you must cut down on and you will feel little loss of your accustomed foods. After you bring your waist under control you can maintain it there with exercise.

OTHER SPECIAL TRAINING SYSTEMS

In the following programs and systems you will find many methods for forcing added muscular growth and strength. Most of these systems and methods are for advanced men tho a few of them will assist beginners who have the problem of not gaining as fast as they should. The first, the Split Repetition method is one such. The following pages are aimed at finishing a complete but condensed education in scientific bodybuilding.


SPLIT REPETITION

If you are of the type that has but little energy, you will find that at first you will gain best on a program in which the repetitions are split up into several sets. In this type of program you get the same strenuous work with less expenditure of energy. In following this split repetition program, it is not always necessary to split up the upper body exercises. However, where this is found desirable you should split them into two sets of 6 repetitions each. Use the standard program as outlined before, but instead of doing 10 to 12 repetitions in the press do only 6, then rest a minute and do 6 more, working up to 8 repetitions. Do the same with the other exercises. Split the squat repetitions into two groups of ten. Do ten reps, then rest a while and do ten more. Later on as you become stronger and feel the need of more work you may do another set of 10 repetitions making three sets in all. We advise you to use the same weight, if you can, for all sets. You may find, in the squat that you can make but 9 reps in the second set and only 8 in the third. Some fellows make ten for all sets. Or it may be that you will wish to reduce the poundage for each succeeding set of squats to enable you to do the full set of 10 reps each time. This is all right. Remember, it is the hard reps in each set that benefit you the most. Try to make as many of them as possible. It is well to do a set of pullovers between each set of squats, as well as to massage the legs lightly as this helps the flow of blood in carrying away fatigue poisons.


SPLIT, PAUSE PROGRAM

This method of squatting is for those with low energy of those who find that they can not stand a bar on their shoulders for any length of time. This program is an advanced version of the preceding program. You perform your upper body exercises in the usual manner, but when you come to the squat, instead of performing the full 20 repetitions and keeping the weight on the shoulders for the entire time, you perform about five reps in the usual manner with deep breathing, but as soon as you complete the 5th squat, you quickly replace the weight on the stands and do about 10 deep breaths, or possibly as many as 15, then quickly take the weight and perform another set of 5 squats, doing about 3 deep breaths between each squat. Then replace the bar on the stands for another pause of 10 to 15 breaths, then another set of 5 reps, pause, another set of 5 reps – in all, 20 reps with 4 pauses. If you are doing this because of pain in the shoulders from holding the bar you can wrap a pad around the bar which will help some. if the bar doesn’t bother your you do not need the pad as it will be in the way for quick changes of the bar from shoulders to stands and back to the shoulders. You will, of course, require some good stands so that it will be convenient for these changes. You may want to make the pauses after but three squat but we do not recommend this where not absolutely necessary. You may soon work up to where you make three pauses in 20 repetitions and later but two. When performing with this method you must stand close to the stands when squatting so that you can quickly place the bar on them.

THE REST PAUSE SYSTEM

There is another version of this method called the Rest Pause System. It is performed in exactly the same way as recommended for the squat in the Split Pause Program as explained above. However, instead of doing it with the squat only, you follow the same plan with every exercise on your program. In the curl, for instance, you will have a pair of boxes, a chair, or rack support at the proper height for resting the weight on between repetitions. You will do one repetition and rest the bar on the support for a count of 3 to 5 then grasp the weight and make another repetition, then pause for another rest for a count of about 5. Continue in this way for the full number of reps of 10 or 12. Follow this same method through your entire program – one rep, then a rest pause and so on. We suggest that you do two reps of the squat and a rest pause, rather than the five recommended in the first section of this method.

Some very remarkable gains have been made by men who followed this system when other methods failed.

RADER HIGH CHEST PULL

You will find this one of the most unusual exercises for giving great gains in rib box expansion. It has given very good gains to advanced men who have trained for years with no chest improvement from any other method. It can be practiced anywhere without special apparatus and several times per day. It will give you chest increase in the upper chest where you want it most. It gives a high arch to the chest. No other exercise will affect the chest as does this exercise.

It is a little more difficult to learn than some other chest exercises and the better you learn it the more effective it becomes.

You stand and grasp a bar, a shelf, door, or any other solid, strong object which can be grasped at slightly above the height of the top of the head.

Now that you have a grasp on this object, with the hands spaced about 3 inches apart or less, you keep the arms straight and pull down and IN and at the same time take a deep breath. If you perform this movement properly you will feel a very strong pull in the area of the breast bone, and even a sharp little pain there at times. Don’t be alarmed. This is an indication that you are performing the exercise correctly.

Some men find they can pull harder if they bend the elbows just slightly. Don’t allow them to bend too much, tho. The harder your pull, the more benefit your chest will get, IF you are pulling correctly. You MUST NOT contract the abdominals. If they are tensed they will flatten the chest and prevent any effective pull from the pectoral muscles which do the work in this exercise.

After a little practice you will learn to give a little yank or jerk while pulling, and this will increase the pull that you feel on the chest.

You can also obtain additional pull by tensing the front of the neck muscles and then pulling the head back. This should be learned last, for if you try to learn everything at once, you will, in all probability, defeat yourself in that you will not learn anything right. This neck tensing lifts the chest high and should be done at the same time you pull down an in with the arms. It is especially important that you should pull in very hard with the arms. Of course, you don’t allow the arms to move from their position as that would spoil the effect.

You can do 15 to 20 of these pulls after each set of squats and your chest will feel stretched as it never has before. You can perform a few reps of this exercise during the day and can do it every day without going stale. Your chest may get a little sore and tender at first, so don’t overdo it until you get used to it.

No other exercise can give you the maximum chest size this exercise can. Don’t neglect it. You won’t need to perform the regular pullover when using this exercise, for it accomplishes the same thing much better.

CHEATING METHOD OF EXERCISE

There are two methods of performing an exercise – very strict, and cheating or loose style. Taking the curl as an example a very strict style would be where you stand strictly erect and slowly curl the weight to the shoulders with no movement of the elbows, shoulders of body. It can be made very strict by leaning the shoulders against the wall or a post to prevent movement.

A cheating curl would be performed by taking the weight in the hands and starting it with a swing and bending back as the weight comes up. In other words, you use a fast start and lots of body movement – anything to get it up. There are different degrees of cheating as you can plainly see, and it is used in different degrees by bodybuilders.

Generally speaking, most men will use a very strict style and find it best for most bodybuilding programs. There are times, however, when you reach a sticking point in your training where you will find that a specialized program of cheating exercises will help you get started progressing again.

With these cheating movements you can use a much greater poundage and work the muscles very hard. This cheating style can be applied to nearly every exercise known. Just remember in applying it to any exercise, that a cheating movement is doing it the easiest way and the one in which the greatest poundage can be used. In the press this would be a fast start and excessive back bend. In the bench press it would be bouncing the weight from chest and back arch. In the rowing you would start it fast and allow considerable body movement. In the squat you would not go so slow and also would aid yourself with one or two hands to get past the hard stages. This is easy to learn. You need only release the bar with one hand and push against your thigh to help you out. So you can go on and on adapting cheating methods to your exercises.

You should not use these methods permanently – only occasionally to help speed your progress.

In addition to giving you added development you will find cheating methods will give you great strength in a hurry.

PEAK CONTRACTIONS

Peak contraction methods, as they are termed, will sometimes be helpful in working a very stubborn muscle, such as calves or forearms, which are hard to develop. We have given you a peak contraction movement for the calves in the raise on toes on a block when we ask you to raise as high as you can then make an effort to come up higher. You will often get a cramp in a muscle when you use peak contractions. In face, peak contraction movements are cramping movements. Because of this we do not recommend them except in extreme cases where development is impossible otherwise. Sometimes such movements create a tendency for the muscle to cramp when you are not exercising.

To use peak contraction on a muscle you place the limb in a position where the muscle can contract to its maximum. If, for instance, you wished to get a peak contraction on a thigh biceps on the back of the thigh you would bring the leg as far back as possible, then holding this position you could bend the knee to the maximum. If you do this you will usually find muscles will cramp up. By adding weight to the foot with an iron boot you use it as a peak contraction movement.

To adapt exercises to different muscles for this system you need to know something of anatomy so that you will understand the positions most favorable to such movements. For the arm biceps the most favorable position in which the origin and insertion of the biceps is closest together is with the elbow pointing straight overhead. If you point your elbow up like that and then contract the biceps and at the same time twist the tightly closed fist you will find your biceps cramping. To adapt an exercise for this position you would need to do curls from an overhead pulleyweight. However, a semi-peak contraction can be had by doing seated dumbbell curls while bending forward with the elbow against the thigh. Even great contraction can be had by lying on a bench face down and doing curls.

Do not specialize too much on this type of program as it may give you muscles that cramp easily.

FORCED REPETITIONS

The method of forced reps has been used for many years and has certain values for a specialized program. In this method you use the help of two assistants who stand by to help you when you reach a point where you can’t make another repetition. Let’s take the bench press, for example. You have perhaps made 6 reps and as you start the 7th you get about half way up and stop. Your training partners will then place a hand under the bar and help you just enough to complete the movement. You will continue in this manner until you have completed 10 or 12 reps. In other words you do all you can without help, then complete the set with help.

This is a very advanced form of power and developmental training and should only be used by advanced men. You should use care that you do not become overtrained and go stale. It can be used on any exercise and it doesn’t take much imagination to know how to apply it to any exercise you wish to use it on. It can be used for one exercise or a whole training program.
If you train alone, one hand movements can be adapted to this method.

MORE ABBREVIATED PROGRAMS

There are several reasons why some men find it advantageous to practice on an abbreviated squat program. One is that they don’t have energy enough for the other exercises, and as the squat is the key exercise they eliminate some of the others. There have been many cases where the pupil practiced nothing but the squat and made amazing gains in bodyweight. It might be thought that this specialization would result in large legs and nothing else, but such was not the case, as the pupils made gains in the size of the chest, arms, neck, back, etc. These parts likewise increased in strength. It is because of these characteristics that the squat is termed the “Growing Exercise.”

It is often found that such as abbreviated program is the only way to force some stubborn cases to grow. Once they are on their way to gaining, other exercises are added.

Also it is sometimes the desire of some people to gain weight only. They have little interest in general proportions etc. They just want improved health and normal weight. To these this abbreviated program is ideal. Also, if at some later date they wish to bring their other proportions up they need only adopt exercises affecting these parts.

Many fellows have found it wise to use nothing but the squat and perhaps one to three other exercises. They will perhaps use the press behind the neck – and rowing exercise – or perhaps they will adopt some favorite lift of exercise that affects some part of the body that they are particularly interested in developing. However, they retain their key exercise, the squat, as their main exercise.

In these abbreviated programs the pupil is usually advised to so several sets of the squat. Often he will start with 10 reps, then rest and do 15 with a lighter weight, then rest and do 20 with a still lighter weight. Some men follow the practice of doing as many as 5 sets of squats of various numbers of repetitions and weights.

The same breathing methods and other practices in general are followed as given in the first standard program. We list later variations in programs for those who have tried the first or standard program for at least 3 months and wish to make a change.

PRESS – CHIN – SQUAT
PROGRAM

Here is an abbreviated program that has given very good results. It consists of but three exercises and yet they are so well chosen that they cover most of the major muscles in the body.

You should first perform the tow arm press either in the continental style or the military style, or if you prefer, the press behind neck. Use only one style in your program. Follow this with the two arm chin. Be sure to make your chins complete by straightening the arms out when you come down and then pulling up until the bar touches the chest when coming up. Follow the chin exercise with the squats. We suggest that you do 10 to 12 repetitions in the press and 10 to 15 in the chin and 20 to 25 in the squat. If you find it develops you better you can use the split repetition method on this abbreviated program, however, it would be wise to first try the above named repetitions as they are most successful in the majority of cases. Work out two or three times a week on this program. Also include the pullover in this program following the squat.

THE CLEAN AND PRESS
SQUAT PROGRAM

Another wonderful program that has proven to be a marvelous all round developer is as follows:

First perform the clean and press. This is an exercise that we rate as a body builder along with the squat. One could perform it alone and obtain marvelous results if he were to work hard enough at it. By using it along with the squat and the rowing exercise you have an unbeatable combination. This program would come under the heading of an abbreviated program. It requires considerable explanation.

In the proper performance of the clean and press for a growing exercise you should use the same breathing methods that you use for the squat. You should work up to about 15 reps in the clean and press. Then add more weight. If the pupil will follow carefully, we will give a description of the proper performance.

Bend over the bar and grasp it at a little over shoulder width over grip. While keeping the legs almost straight, stand up, and as you do so pull the weight in to the shoulders. You should take a very deep breath as we have told you to do in the squat, and hold the breath until the weight is at the shoulders, after which you expel the breath and take another quick and VERY LARGE breath. In pulling the weight to the shoulders, make the movement with the arms as much as possible. Use the legs no more than necessary. You see, we want to make it as much an arm and shoulder exercise as possible. Now, after taking the deep breath at the shoulders, press the weight overhead. in starting out you will probably be able to pull the weight up with the arms alone and to press the weight in military style, but as you progress in repetitions you will find that you will have to use the legs a bit more in pulling the weight up ad that you will have to bend the back considerably to press overhead. This is proper, as by thus performing it you will be able to do more repetitions with more weight.

As you finish the press you will expel the breath and lower the weight to the floor. Now, while resting the weight on the floor, do your deep breathing, as in the squat. You will probably not take over two or three deep breaths between lifts, then hold the last one and pull the weight to the shoulders and perform another complete lift. Repeat thus until you have completed the full 15 reps. You may perform a set of light pullovers after this exercise.

The next exercise is the Two Arm Rowing Exercise. It should be performed as given earlier in the course.

Now perform your squat, also a given earlier, doing 20 to 25 reps. After your final squat perform another set of light pullovers.

You should feel that you have had a very good workout after this. If you like, you may, on some of the first clean and presses, lower the weight to arms length only and just hold the weight in the hands against the thighs while doing your deep breathing, then pull the weight from here to the shoulders for the next rep.

CLEAN AND JERK PRESS
SQUAT PROGRAM

This exercise is the same as the one above except that you use the clean and jerk instead of the clean and press. It is more advanced in that you use more weight and clean with as much leg action as necessary, then start the press with a drive of the legs by bending and then straightening them quickly, then finish by pressing to straight arms length. Do this exercise first then your squats as usual. This program will give you rugged power as well as unusual development and is a favorite program of Doug Hepburn.

SPECIALIZED SQUAT PROGRAM

We have mentioned this program before. It is very effective where the pupil desires nothing but added bodyweight. Some pupils have found it a very fast method of gaining and they later adopt more varied programs. It is also an excellent program for when a pupil’s time is very limited. It has great chest developing qualities. In this program you use nothing but the squat and the pullover or Rader Chest Pull. You perform the squat first and just as given previously, and then follow it with a set of pullovers. If you feel you have the energy, you may do still another set of squats using either 20 or 15 or 10 repetitions and then another set of pullovers. Some pupils thrive on several such sets. Other training principles involving diet, rest, sleep, etc, are the same as given for all other programs.

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